台灣當年為何退出聯合國?這是歷史課本不會教的真相

Posted on 2015/11/10

聯合國大會第2758號決議是1971年10月25日在第26屆聯合國大會會議上表決通過的、關於「恢復中華人民共和國在聯合國組織中的合法權利問題」決議中華人民共和國政府依據此決議取得原由中華民國政府在聯合國擁有的中國席位與代表權。[1]當時中華民國政總府將此決議案稱為「排我納匪案[註 1],現今中華民國政府則以「中華民國退出聯合國」代稱[2][3][4]。該決議案對海峽兩岸政府國際地位、外交關係的變化產生重大影響,也成為今日中華人民共和國政府主張「一個中國」的重要依據。

從 1949 年中華民國撤台以來,誰能稱自己為「中國」的會籍問題就一直是聯合國每年開會討論的事情。1970 年,美國在越戰中耗費大量軍資,國內反戰聲浪興起,為能有效打擊蘇聯,尼克森總統決定與當時和蘇聯交惡的中華人民共和國建交。

於是,後面的故事大家都知道了,一直卡在聯合國關於誰能代表中國的問題,就在美共建交後解決了,台灣退出聯合國,不再代表中國,中華人民共和國則進入聯合國,成為國際承認的中國。

然而,大家不知道的是這個黑箱的 2758 號決議。

UN2758_zh
圖片來源:wikipedia

當時聯合國代表提出,只要蔣介石願意改國號,中華民國就可以留在聯合國。然而,這項提議卻被蔣介石否決了。當時日本、英國、法國都希望中華民國能留在聯合國,我們外交部官員也送了將國號改成「中華台灣共和國」的簽呈到蔣介石面前,但他就是堅持不簽,並且在這一個黑箱、當時人民普遍不知道過程的聯合國 2758 號決議中,退出聯合國,放棄中華民國代表中國的權利。

維基百科記載:兩蔣執政時期的中華民國政府認為:「聯合國提出並通過以毛共匪幫代替中華民國的席位的議案,是不符合《聯合國憲章》的非法行為,標誌著聯合國自身的墮落與變質。中華民國政府與全中國人民,決不承認其有任何效力。」1971年10月26日下午蔣中正發表《中華民國退出聯合國告全國同胞書》,稱:「以臺澎金馬為基地的中華民國政府,乃是大陸七億中國人民真正代表。恢復大陸七億同胞的人權自由,乃是整個中華民族的共同意願,乃是我們決不改變的國家目標和必須完成的神聖責任。中華民國是一個獨立的主權國,對於主權的行使,決不受任何外來的干擾,無論國際形勢發生任何變化,我們將不惜任何犧牲,從事不屈不撓的奮鬥,絕對不動搖不妥協。」

這段歷史,應該要讓更多人知道,也提醒我們,不要再讓政治黑箱斷送台灣未來。

美國國務院「台北5869」號解密電文,當時的駐華大使馬康衛曾應中華民國外交部次長楊西崑要求,召開秘密會議。楊西崑向蔣中正提議,中華民國改名為中華台灣共和國(Chinese Republic of Taiwan),以行政命令通令全島進行公投決定台灣前途,並由台灣人民選出制憲會議。楊西崑表示此方案需要美國表態支持並說服蔣中正。美國總統尼克森及其高級顧問季辛吉因為正在籌劃北京之行,未理會這個方案[35]

在此之後,隨着時間及政權轉移,中華民國政府對該決議文開始有不同的解讀。決議文要求「立即把蔣介石的代表從它在聯合國組織及其所屬一切機構中所非法佔據的席位上驅逐出去」,並未提及中華民國政府及其所轄之台灣地區政治地位,而數年後蔣介石或當時代表均已過世,但中華民國政府依然實際存在,其空白因而為日後中華民國「返聯」或「入聯」留下相關爭議[36][37]。亦有主張參考兩韓兩德模式。

(資料來源:公民廟口 – 立委在做天在看 。首圖來源: 蘋果日報 )以及維基百科

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