前新浪微博内容审核员专访:中共如何打造网络“真理部”

华盛顿 — 

刘力朋曾在中国做了十年的内容审核员,今年三月来到美国。近日,他接受美国之音专访,讲述中共的网络审查体制是如何运行的,各个权力机构是如何一起打造网络“真理部”,从而实现言论控制与思想控制,实现极权主义统治的。他的经历使人联想到英国作家乔治·奥威尔的小说《1984》。

这本小说描述了一个恐怖的极权主义国家大洋国,在大洋国只有四个部门:专门制造假新闻的部门被称为真理部(Ministry of Truth),监督、逮捕和迫害异己人士的秘密警察被称为友爱部(Ministry of Love),发动战争的部门被称为和平部(Ministry of Peace),负责挨饿的部门叫做富裕部(Ministry of Plenty)。小说的主角温斯顿(Winston Smith)的职业就是“真理部”的审查员,为了适应“老大哥”的政治需要,天天篡改历史,控制言论,从而控制国民的思想而实现极权统治。其实这个世界对中国人来说并不遥远。

一个内容审核员的工作日常

前新浪微博内容审核员刘力朋2020年8月在美国家中 (刘力朋本人提供)
前新浪微博内容审核员刘力朋2020年8月在美国家中 (刘力朋本人提供)

2011年的一天,一大早,刘力朋坐上公司的大巴前往工业园区上班。当时,天津工资标准较低、成本也较低,新浪等互联网公司把一些部门搬到天津的工业园区内,比如劳动密集型的审查部门。因此,当时天津有一个绰号叫“删都”。刘力朋正是新浪微博的一位内容审核员。

公司大巴穿越天津市河西区、南开区,一直开到西青区的偏僻的海泰产业园区,大概要1个小时,只要上了大巴,公司就算是到岗。“每一个人都会在艰苦的一天开始前选择睡一大觉,真的不是小憩,是非常踏实的一觉。

到了公司后,首先是交接班,告诉今天工作的有害样本和需要注意的东西。

刘力朋工作期间新浪微博审核部门办公室 (刘力朋提供)
刘力朋工作期间新浪微博审核部门办公室 (刘力朋提供)

此时,新浪微博的内容审核员一共有120名,一共分为4组,大约23人一组,分为两班倒,白日班工作大约11小时多,晚间班工作时间大约为13小时多。为了保证24小时都有审核人员在审核微博内容,两个组的交接班必须严丝合缝,甚至有一点点重叠,因此是24小时全方位审核,不能有空缺时间和纰漏。刘力朋强调,交班非常重要,否则就会出现空档。

交接班结束,散会,每一个人回到自己的工位,打开电脑,打开后台,每一个电脑都是一模一样的,多年后,刘力朋回忆那会上班的情景,依然感到有些恐怖:“每一个人都在一个格子间,屋里没有别的声音,只听到滚轮刷刷刷往下翻页,时不时会停几秒,然后就是鼠标哒哒哒的点击声,这是在删除内容。如今回想有些可怕。”

打开后台,系统已经进行用“敏感词库”进行了第一遍机审。他说:“有一些高危的敏感词,如果踩中了会直接进到删除的状态,然后人工审核;低危的敏感词,踩中后是一个默认通过的状态,有先审后放和先放后审两种策略。”他说,一些高危敏感词是绝对要删除的,比如六四和法轮功,然后每天都有一些新闻事件如何处理,每个班次,他们都会留下一篇工作日志,工作日志将如何审核微博写得非常清楚。

刘力朋给美国之音提供了他在新浪微博做内容审查员的工作日志,日志按时间清楚地记录了他们每天是如何处理每一条新闻事件和图片的。

2011年6月1日新浪微博夜班审核日志 (刘力朋提供)
2011年6月1日新浪微博夜班审核日志 (刘力朋提供)

刘力朋说:“文字审查比较快,在后台输入关键词,把一些有害信息删除,然后就是删,私,止,隐,通,几种操作之一。还有很多新闻机构需要微博单审,也就是过滤评论区的展示内容,来让5毛或爱国主义者的表演能够显现。”

据刘力朋介绍,刘力朋和他的同事大多是刚毕业的大学生,有的还是大专生,这个工作并不难,对于学历和技能并没有特别的要求,所以他们的工资也并不高,甚至可以说很低了,只是比电子工厂的工人稍微高一点,只要本科或是大专高校毕业生,因为他们都经过了很长时间的政治训练,从幼儿园开始就有政治课。必须得是大专或是本科上。他们来后其实都不要多大训练,在学校都训练十几年了,什么是党想听,什么是党不想听,已经很门儿清了,而且还能分出级别来,唯一要做培训的就是六四和法轮功。因为六四已经被洗得很干净,年轻一代人不知道。不过,在微博上,真正站出来为六四说话,说共产党杀人不对,这样的一周不会超过十条。

刘力朋还介绍说,120人审核团队不算很大,现在做B轮C轮融资的小初创公司的都有几百人,大一点的公司,都是数千上万人的团队,像字节跳动,不算外包的也有一万人。

他说:“现在审核的标准变了,所有一切都变了,而且微博他们更倾向于用外包团队来解决,就是更粗糙、更便宜的审核方式,他们一般在西安,后来放在重庆,用这些外包审核团队。”

就这样,刘力朋在这里工作了两年,2013年离开,此后辗转多个工作,大多与内容审核有关,最后在乐视总编室做质量监控主管,依然是内容审核方面的工作。在内容审核方面,他做了十年,“这个工作很累!”

神秘的“有关部门”:一个立体的权力体系

审核人员到底是依照什么标准来进行审核的呢?这些标准到底是谁制定的呢?

听到这样的问题,刘力朋笑了,他说:“审查的标准就是没有标准,如果有标准,那不就可以反审查吗?老百姓就不用自我审查了,像YouTube那样有一个社区公约,明确规定什么不能发,就不用自我审查了。中国审查标准是不透明的,是黑箱,就像搏击俱乐部,第一条规则就是你不可以谈论搏击俱乐部,中国的审查也是这样的,你不可以谈论中国的审查,来防止知道这个规则。但私企内部会有自己的一套执行标准,这一套东西,严禁和外界沟通。”

刘力朋说,打开后台,首先是系统根据敏感词进行了一遍机审。现在平台上的敏感词库有的多达几十万,少的至少有五千个。

敏感词库主要是私企网络平台慢慢积累的一个词库,就是通过转发,或是敏感用户,或是“评论翻车”发现未命中的敏感词,总结后加入词库,这是平台内的样本积累的结果。此外,还有外部压力给的,网信办、公安部、甚至部队都会告诉你,这里有一个样本,帮我全网清除,今天发十个样本,明天发五十个样本,这样我们就从里面摘出很多敏感词来添加进去。

刘力朋还注意到,在微博里,“涉警”审查得最严重,也被处罚得最严重,比如说把交警开罚单是缺钱之类的内容发微信朋友圈,都会被当地公安抓捕,因为在警察国家,当然更注重警察权威。

刘力朋还说,之前,这些权力机构偏重开会,会让我们的政府事务经理去学习会议精神,然后回去自己制定审核标准。但这样非常慢,应付不了局势的变化,现在直接下有害样本,挑敏感词。每一个平台都有自己的敏感词库,以及培训审核的教材,这些都是绝对保密的,也不允许带走的。平台之间也竞争看谁审查做得好,就是这些东西。

有了敏感词库,系统就会对平台进行第一次内容审核。

2014年6月5日新浪微博审核日志部分 (刘力朋提供)
2014年6月5日新浪微博审核日志部分 (刘力朋提供)

机审之后就是人工审查,“必须人工审查。没有纯机器审核,最后必须人工验收,就像华为手机云相册删除用户隐私照片,但任何审查行业的人都知道者必定等于被反复人工翻看。”“另外,机审不通过的也要有人看来更正误删,即使人工审核通过之后,依然有清查组在反复搜索关键词,应对有关部门抽风似的检查。比如国新办有一次发来35万个敏感词,要求重新再清查,这35万个敏感词全是有关习近平的。此外,审查的标准常常是朝令夕改的,比如薄熙来上来就放好话,下台后立即改了,又要重新清查之前的。这就是为什么有些已经发出去很久的微博又突然被删除。”

那么,人工审核的这些指令来自哪里呢? 刘力朋说,每天他们都会接到各种“有关部门”的指令,要求他们审核方面具体做什么:封杀什么言论,让什么言论出现,如何引导舆论走向等等。刘力朋说,这是一个复杂的权力系统,中共的宣传部门、公安部门,各种安全部门都有权力管网络审查,还有国新办、新闻机构,工信部,甚至农业部等可以追着来管网络审查,里面的权力一头乱麻,基本上谁都有权利下命令哪些要禁,哪些账号要删号。

他说:“比如说,我在那会,慕容雪村的一个号就是国新办下令销号的。我看他被删了,我就去后台看了看,是北京那边操作的,做了一个标注,是国新办下令。封一个用户,其实平台是不太高兴的,只不过会坚决去执行,执行起来不会那么随便,会标注什么原因。”

不过,这也不是绝对的,刘力朋补充道。普通用户和vip用户享受的待遇是不一样的,普通用户只有命中了敏感词,才人工审查,而敏感VIP,就是重点关照的头部用户(KOL),有着几十万或是上百万甚至上千万的粉丝,动不动讨论公共话题,他们的每一条都要看,所有的东西都要审核。此外,还有“普通敏感”用户,就是被转发链上一并删除过多,或别的触发过多而被自动加进去的用户,同样每条都要看,很多敏感词都是从这里积累的。

不过,刘力朋强调,其实这里也有点歧视:“平台并不会主动保护言论自由,但也不愿意过度删除,只能偏向头部用户(KOL),普通人没有线下实体的,所以更容易被删号,只要命中关键敏感词,就会被删。”

他说:“我那会还好,还可以偷偷解封,我常这么干。我离职之后,一个账号封号或是解封,需要两个人操作,就像朝鲜人出门那样,在外国餐厅的服务员,不能一个人出门,必须两个人出门,互相监督,你就不能胡乱操作,尤其不能随便解封了,这个空间就没有了。”

刘力朋表示,在微博上,凡是有了一些影响力的用户,最后都会被封掉。

他说:“薛蛮子仅仅是蹭公共话题热点,并没有实质上反对现行体制,但因为其千万粉丝,照样被抓。”对于当下的微博言论空间,刘力朋更是表示忧心,现在真正的所谓敏感用户,还能说话的,顶多也就一两万粉丝,否则公安就直接把他端了,如今完全没有生存空间了。

腾讯一位不愿意透露姓名的前内容工作人员告诉美国之音,腾讯的审查程序与此大同小异。他说,有一个专门的安全中心负责内容审核,首先是有一个关键词列表,比如说一篇文章命中几个关键词,机审就直接判定不给过,你就发不出;另一种情况是你命中关键词,但机审认定还需要人工审查,就送去人工审查。还有一种情况,就是机审也过,人工审查也过了,但有部门觉得你不爽,他要求腾讯删,这时,他就要有本单位的介绍信,要么就是通过腾讯的举报程序,要么就去找网管办去干涉。大部分是前面情况,因为找网管办删稿子是很严重的事情。

这位腾讯的前内容工作人员说,他在那里工作期间,每天都会收到一个叫报道提示的东西,多的时候十几条少的三四条,都是网管办的命令,是网管办发给腾讯安全中心,腾讯安全中心再发给各个审查部门负责人,然后审核员去执行。而可以对他们下达命令的不仅仅是网管办。

他说:“中国可以管网络的部门一共有五十多个,公安部、广电总局。教育部、网信办,工业与技术信息部爱国运动委员会等等,都可以来管,它是一个特别立体的权力体系,不是单单从网管办网信办到网络平台这么简单地从点到面。”

刘力朋说:“我举一个例子,比如有一部电影,出现了一个学校,那就要交给教育部审查;如果又出现两个警察,那又要送到公安部去审查;要是出现一个矿工,还得送去国土资源部审查,总之,你出现了相关内容就要送到有关部门审查。这就是有关部门。这种审查是非常具体非常荒谬的。”

“网络沙皇”鲁炜开创的互联网管制时代

2013年7月,著名女歌手吴虹飞在新浪微博称“炸建委”被罚行政拘留10日。这件事轰动网民。紧接着,2013年8月20日,公安部开始集中打击网络有组织制造传播谣言等违法犯罪专项行动,秦火火等人因网络造谣而被逮捕。这可以说是互联网上第一次大整顿,此后渐渐成为常态。

刘力朋回忆,网络上的言论管制越来越严格也是从此时开始的。而这与鲁炜开始掌管网络有关。

2013年4月,鲁炜开始担任国家互联网信息办公室主任,开始掌管中国互联网,从此,中国互联网失去了早期的改良、自由之风,进入肃杀的管制时期。

2013年8月10日,鲁炜召集微博、网络名人座谈,提出“七条底线”的共识,并敦促名人遵守该七条原则,当时参加座谈会的有纪连海、廖玒、陈里、潘石屹、薛蛮子等十多位网络名人。当时鲁炜就网络名人社会责任提出六点希望,也与在场的网络名人们达成了坚守“七条底线”的共识。这七条被网民称为“鲁七条”:法律法规底线、社会主义制度底线、国家利益底线、公民合法权益底线、社会公共秩序底线、道德风尚底线、信息真实性底线。七条底线发布当日,被大陆各大门户网站放上首页。大部分网民极力反对,指中国政府公然用“制度”钳制言论自由,部分人在大陆凯迪社区和个人博客等网站公开表示对第二条“社会主义制度底线”的讥讽。但是不少网站受到当局压力,被迫删除大量留言和跟帖,出现了几万人留言,只留下区区一百条的怪相。

刘力朋回忆说:“每一个互联网平台都要雇人不停打扫平台,不然就会被政府关掉,这是我在新浪工作时当时互联网的情况。2013年,政府对互联网控制更加得心应手之后,平台就不光是审核员来审核,还会入驻网评员、公安系统的、共青团的这样的官方账号。之前网评工作也是有,就是俗称五毛,但他们更多是搅浑水,但现在,是网评员来一统天下,删帖封号反而让人感受不太深了。给你感受深刻的是,现在每点击一条新闻,下面都是支持中共的,而且花样洗地的。”

2014年5月,中央网信办成立,鲁炜担任中央网信办主任。从网管办到网信办,虽然是一套班子的两个牌子,但权力更加集中,审核从此更是变本加厉。

2014年10月,中央网信办面向社会公开选拔9名业务部门处级领导干部,分属5个业务部门:网络评论工作局、网络社会工作局、移动网络管理局、网络安全协调局、国际合作局。10月30日,鲁炜出席首届世界互联网大会。互联网大会曾经被指是鲁炜从政生涯的主要政绩。在第一届世界互联网大会上,中方提出一份大会声明草案,推出互联网“网络主权”的概念,一时间舆论哗然。在新闻发布会并答记者问上,对于网络审查制度,鲁炜说:“我们现在不允许的是,(外国互联网企业)既占了中国市场,又挣了中国的钱,还来伤害中国。”因此,纽约时报中文网称鲁炜为“中国互联网的守门人”。 2015年4月,因被称为“有权决定亿万网民看什么”,鲁炜入选《时代周刊》2015年“百位最具影响力人物”。而对于中国人民来说,他是“网络沙皇”。

刘力朋对此评论说,因为互联网的匿名性,看到中共突兀地提出“网络主权”,一开始感觉很荒谬。因为中国政府总是用“主权”来遮掩中国人权问题,现在出现一个“网络主权”,不知道其意图。直到Tiktok出现,我才明白这个概念。TikTok能够反常地在海外大获成功,才让人发现网络主权是非常认真、严格执行的概念,就是所有中国人必须关在中国局域网牢笼内,若你严格遵守做到这一点,反向屏蔽中国公民,就可以获准在海外执行宽松审核标准,甚至给予垄断优势,在海外大力发展。所以中国无限输血华为,主导5G标准,绑架国际通讯协会,召开国际互联网大会,想方设法地介入各种互联网基础协议,都是以其“网络主权”为主导思想的。

党员优先字节跳动和一国两制的TIKTOK

在中国互联网公司中,字节跳动有些特别。

2017年底,字节跳动公司的产品今日头条遭到整顿:依据有关部门的整改要求,今日头条手机客户端“推荐”“热点”“社会”“图片”“问答”“财经”等6个频道自2017年12月29日18时至12月30日18时暂停更新24小时。两天之后的2017年12月31日,今日头条平台称,关闭社会频道,将新时代频道设置为默认频道。同时,根据相关法规和管理要求,集中清理涉嫌违规的含低质内容的自媒体账号,12月31号共封禁账号36个,禁言账号1065个。

整顿后的今日头条不久公开招聘2000名内容审核编辑,条件是:党员优先!即便这样,不久之后,2018年4月,字节跳动的另一款应用程序内涵段子, 因“存在导向不正、格调低俗等突出问题”而被中国国家广播电视总局责令永久关停。

接连两次大整顿,对字节跳动来说,几乎是致命的。从此,字节跳动公司比其他互联网更加注重党组织建设,内部人员指出,相对于其他互联网公司,字节跳动公司的党员与党组织更多,也更“红”。

据字节跳动公司的一位线人提供的内部资料看,字节跳动有着一套严格的审查程序和审查标准,并将政治审查放在首位,其中第一条是:“画面中出现攻击、丑化、恶搞共产党、国家、政府、我国各级社会制度、我国政府高官、我国现任核心领导人(习、江、彭、李、王)、我国历任国家领导人、朝鲜领导人金正恩等,以及涉及我国国家领导人仕途及其家属的相关负面言论”,“中断,永久封号”。此外,像涉及六四、法轮功的一律中断,永久封号。

字节跳动图片审查标准“涉政”部分 (刘力朋提供)点击图片查看详细信息
字节跳动图片审查标准“涉政”部分 (刘力朋提供)点击图片查看详细信息

刘力朋说,如果没有中国廉价审核工厂进行严格的审查,字节跳动不可能发展这么快。

同时,与微博微信不同的是,TikTok虽然是抖音海外版,但实际上是两个不兼容的版本,TikTok严禁中国人入内。实行的是“一国两制”。从技术上来讲,TikTok用尽了它能承诺给中国政府的一切手段来禁止中国人进入这个平台。首先用VPN翻墙上Facebook Twitter Google Youtube等手段,在TikTok无效,它会扫描你的手机运营商信息,任何+86的号码是绝对无法使用的,IP地址只能明确不是大陆IP的,GPS定位在中国境内也不行。另一方面,TikTok被GFW有配合的屏蔽,非常精准地屏蔽了TikTok的登录服务器。刘力朋说,正因为如此,“中国政府才允许它的存在。微信就没有这么坏,也没有特别想做海外业务。”

刘力朋同时也指出,TikTok在海外也进行审查。首先他们招聘了“海外审核经理”,他们在天津和其他各地招聘各种非中文语种审核员,这些记录招聘网站还可以搜到缓存,尽管最近都被删了。此外,他们也制定了一套审核标准,因为权限原因,线人没有看到Tiktok的审核标准和流程。

作为内容审核人员,刘力朋早就发现中共审查早已用于海外。

2011年6月4日和7月1日的时候,刘力朋第一次接触审查香港的六四维园烛光晚会和七一大游行。他说:“我突然意识到香港人和我们共享一套审核标准,香港人本来是自由,但依然要对他们进行审核。六四的时候,七一大游行的时候,所有香港的ip都发不出来,只要带图片的都发不出。在当时新浪上有很多香港用户,看ip地址就知道是来自香港的。”

他说,这种审查必然会扩散到美国,美国人使用了这么多年的微信,一直在被监控,一直在被审查。去年,加拿大公民实验室的一个研究结果指出,微信监控所有的用户也包括境外用户,虽然和大陆用户使用两套标准,比如不轻易封号,但会关小黑屋,这样国内朋友看不到你的发言。此外,他们依然可以通过海外用户提取敏感词。

对于当下美国的净网行为,刘力朋表示认可:“世界的互联网没有边界,中国的互联网却有明显的边界。我们只有拆掉这个肮脏的长城防火墙(GFW),让阳光照进这个充满战狼式自我欺骗的谣言和反美阴谋论的中国局域网,我们才有可能安宁,不然按他们的规则,那就是双赢,‘中国赢两次’的双赢。”

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